List of technical terms

Berewick: A term used in the Domesday Book to indicate land that was attached to the Manor but was not in the same location – it was outlying from the place it was controlled from.

Croft: A back garden area to the toft where the villager could grow crops and keep animals.

Cropmarks: Archaeological and natural geological features which can be seen from the air due to differential crop growth.

Earthworks: Upstanding archaeological features – often termed ‘humps and bumps’.

Hollow way: A route way that has been worn down over the years to produce a hollow route through the surrounding area. These are often the main communication routes through the settlement and out into the surrounding field system.

Hundred: An administration district within a shire.

Longhouse: A typical type of medieval peasant house. There is great regional variety but they are usually long and rectangular with an entrance way in the centre of one or both of the long sides.

Lynchets: A type of field system that was formed on steep ground. Lynchets were flat platforms to allow crops to be grown, and often form ‘flights’ up a hill side.

Manor: A term used in the Domesday Book and later to signify a territorial and legal landholding.

Moated Site: Often, but not always, rectangular in shape, an area surrounded by a moat that could hold a house, but other uses included orchards, gardens and industrial sites.

Outlier: Used in the context of the Domesday Book to mean the same as berewick.

Ridge and Furrow: The remnants of medieval ploughed fields. The corrugated pattern was formed as the fields were ploughed using a particular method. In some areas these still remain as upstanding earthworks, in other areas they can still be seen as cropmarks in ploughed fields.

Toft: The area surrounding a medieval house. These can vary in size and nature across the country.

Villeins: Peasant farmers who were tenants and were tied to the Lord of the manor.

Wapentake: This is the same as a hundred but is used in areas which came under Anglo-Scandinavian control in the ninth and tenth centuries.


CUCAP: Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photography

DMH: Deserted Medieval Hamlet

DMV: Deserted Medieval Village

DMVRG: Deserted Medieval Village Research Group

HER: Historic Environment Record

MSRG: Medieval Settlement Research Group

MVRG: Medieval Village Research Group

NMP: Nation Mapping Programme

NMR: National Monuments Records

OS: Ordnance Survey

RAF: Royal Air Force

RCHME: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England

VCH: Victoria County History

County record codes

The following codes are used to indicate the source of county-based records primarily the Domesday Book, and local Historic Environment Records.

BNES: Bath and North East Somerset
BEDS: Bedfordshire
BERK: Berkshire
BIRM: Birmingham
BRIC: Bristol City
BUCK: Buckinghamshire
CAMB: Cambridgeshire
CANT: Canterbury
CHES: Cheshire
CHIC: Chichester
CYOK: City of York
COLC: Colchester
CORN: Cornwall
COVY: Coventry
CUMB: Cumberland
DERB: Derbyshire
DEVN: Devonshire
DORT: Dorset
DUDY: Dudley
DURH: Durham
ESUX: East Sussex
ESSX: Essex
EXET: Exeter
EXMR: Exmoor
GLOC: Gloucester City
GLOS: Gloucestershire
GLOD: Greater London
GMAN: Greater Manchester
HAMP: Hampshire
IWGT: Isle of Wight
HERE: Herefordshire
HERT: Hertfordshire
HUMB: Humber Archaeology Partnership
HUNT: Huntingdonshire
KENT: Kent
LKDT: Lake District
LANC: Lancashire
LECY: Leicester City
LEIC: Leicestershire
LINC: Lincolnshire
MERS: Merseyside
MKYN: Milton Keynes
MIDX: Middlesex
NFOK: Norfolk
NHAM: Northamptonshire
NELN: North East Lincolnshire
NLIN: North Lincolnshire
NYMR: North York Moors
NHBD: Northumberland
NOTC: Nottingham
NOTS: Nottinghamshire
OFDC: Oxford
OXFD: Oxfordshire
PETB: Peterborough
PLYM: Plymouth
PORC: Portsmouth City
RUTD: Rutland
SANW: Sandwell
SHRO: Shropshire
SOLH: Solihull
SOMT: Somerset
SGLO: South Gloucestershire
SOHP: Southampton
SOED: Southend
SYOK: South Yorkshire
STAF: Staffordshire
SOKT: Stoke-on-Trent
SUFF: Suffolk
SURY: Surrey
SUSX: Sussex
TEES: Tees Archaeology
TORB: Torbay
TAWR: Tyne and Wear
WARW: Warwickshire
WEBK: West Berkshire
WMOD: Westmorland
WILT: Wiltshire
WINC: Winchester
WOLV: Wolverhampton
WORS: Worcestershire
WSUX: West Sussex
YOER: Yorkshire, East Riding
YONR: Yorkshire, North Riding
YOWR: Yorkshire, West Riding
YORK: Yorkshire
YODL: Yorkshire Dales